Реферат: Drug trafficking - a global challenge of the XXI century
Наркобизнес — глобальная проблема XXI в.
Drugs situation in the world; scales, major factors and tendencies of development of drugs business.
The drugs business characteristic: criminal groups, kinds of drugs, stages of manufacture and distribution, sale territory.
The characteristic of the markets of principal views of drugs
Interrelation of drugs business with other global problems of mankind.
The mankind has stepped in the XXI-st century, continuing to search for effective ways of the decision of one of the major global world problems — a drug trafficking. This problem costs practically before all states. Here there are no territorial, national, religious, class, sexual or other borders.
The narcoindustry with a turn corresponding approximately of 8 % of world trade is steadily improved, raising technical, financial potential, adapting advanced achievements of scientific and technical progress for the requirements. Therefore it is no wonder that transnational narcosyndicates use in the criminal activity the advanced means of arms and an ammunition, systems of electronic equipment, the newest methods of maintenance of own safety.
World narcobusiness, being the most profitable (for example, in the Netherlands the cost price of one tablet " ecstasy" makes 7-9 cents, and its retail price already $ 8-15) has also the most powerful and branched out mafia structure. Narcobusiness is initially doomed to internationalism, globalisation. Bought primary raw materials in Third World countries, the drug mafia should organise not only its processing in an end-product, but also goods delivery to the consumers which most part lives in the developed countries.
Has passed time when the narcoproblem mentioned the only separately taken countries. The narcotism wide circulation causes concern not only in those governments or other states and the international organisations. The United Nations Organization, in particular, functioning in its structure Management on struggle against drugs and criminality preventive maintenance (based in Vienna), International Crime society, the International association of criminal law, the Interpol is engaged in drug trafficking studying, etc.
Drugs situation in the world; scales, major factors and tendencies of development of drugs business
The world has stepped in the XXI-st century. The rough processes of the globalisation which has captured various areas of human ability to live, as a whole have positive character and give to mankind unprecedented possibilities. But, unfortunately, occurring changes have also a shady side, allowing such troubles of the modern world as the organised crime, the international terrorism, drug business to get transnational character, to turn in «problems without passports».
Spread of drug addiction worldwide has set of aspects: political, economic, social, legal, medical, moral. Drugs – social illness of a modern society, and its exact diagnosis, understanding of all complexity of the given phenomenon and difficulties of struggle with it is necessary for treatment of this illness.
Leitmotif of performances of many heads of the states and the governments at special session of General Assembly of the United Nations in the June, 2008, the devoted struggle against spread of drug addiction, the deep alarm sounded because spread of drug addiction on globe occurs accruing rates and turns to global threat, comparable from the ecological. In especially difficult situation there are many countries with transitive economy1.
Drug business transnationalization, its offensive strategy on a threshold of second millennium are in many respects connected by that to the traditional reasons generating it malicious (poverty, the political hopelessness, social disorder, alienation of millions people), were in the nineties added the new factors accompanying globalisation financial, bank, trading, technological, information and other areas of human activity. These factors, on the one hand, are reflected in a way of life of the person, and with another – open new possibilities for businessmen of drug business. And these new possibilities are reflected as in structure and ways of manufacture drugs, and on ways of delivery, trade, consumption.
By approximate calculations, for today worldwide over 200 million persons are on drugs a various kind. Including about 140 million people smoke marihuana — the most widespread drug, cocaine use 13 million people, and heroin — 8 million, 30 million people’s abuse stimulators amphetamine.
The quantity of consumers of drugs increases every year and basically at the expense of defeat by drugs of the most vulnerable part of the population — youth. In some countries the number of schoolboys and full age young men which, by own recognition, tried to consume marihuana, makes 37 %.
Along with it the tendency of expansion of activity of the international criminal groupings was outlined. Thanks to the international character and a market basis drug business faster, than legal business, reacts to these changes, using globalisation for expansion of a drug network and expansion in all directions.
In an active of drug businessmen all advantages of shadow economy – tax free, absence of control, concentration of huge capitals, network international structure of the organisation of corporate type which covers the basic links of the drug industry and connects in a uniform global network of all participants of a drug trafficking – making, consuming and providing transit of drug cargoes of the country. And the specific goods – a drug thanks to an interdiction have the highest prices defined not by production costs, and demand in the drug market of the consumer dependent on it and from distance from it to a point of production2.
The drug industry is enough steady because of a stable demand and brings considerable profits in connection with absence some a serious competition between the organisations which are engaged in this kind of criminal business. The turn of the world drug industry is estimated by experts of the United Nations approximately in 400 billion dollars a year that makes about 8 % of a turn of all international trade. The report of the United Nations on position with drugs in the world of 1997 notices that the world turn of drug business in separate years exceeds a turn of the world market of cars or the world market of ferrous metals. One only the Colombian cartels presented more than 500 companies, in the late nineties of the XX-th century took from drug traffic in the USA of 20 billion dollars of annual profit. For comparison we will notice that totally national budgets of Colombia, Bolivia and Peru made at that point in time only about 9 billion American dollars annually.
Operations with drugs bring from 300 to 2000 % have arrived that does their attractive and for the transnational criminal organisations, and for separate groups of criminals, whose purpose is reception of the maximum profit in short terms3. Thus the drug industry is steadily improved, raising technical, financial potential, adapting advanced achievements of scientific and technical progress for the requirements.
Transnational drug syndicates in criminal activity use the advanced means of arms and an ammunition, systems of electronic equipment, the newest methods of maintenance of own safety. A part of the profit received from drug traffic, drug businessmen direct on acquisition of equipment of communication, cryptographic devices, and radio with use of high-speed measurement of frequency, receivers for revealing of radar. By estimations of experts, drug business annually puts about 125 million dollars in purchase new «technicians of alarm investigation». Drug cartels have perfectly armed security forces in which order there is the advanced weapon, up to the portable is rocket-surface-to-air missile systems. And on September, 8th, 2000 on world information channels has passed the message on detection in Colombia in working suburb Fakatativa (18 km from Bogota) shipyards with almost collected тридцатиметровой a submarine on which drug businessmen were going to take out the production. Drug business development is closely connected with traffic in arms development. Annually from drug criminals from all regions of the world it is withdrawn about 100 thousand units of fire-arms; comes to light over 500 secret runways and platforms, about the same quantity of the flying machines used by drug syndicates, gets off during flight or it will be confiscated. Despite it, it is daily carried out about 300 starts with illegal cargo of drugs.
Transnational scope of criminal activity allows criminals to use channels fast and concerning reliable audio- and video contact.
So, the greatest distribution is received by cases of use of global information network Internet for the conclusion of contactless transactions. As reported by Reuters, drug dealers and their clients even more often conclude transactions in «private-room» (the closed rooms) the chats-channels protected from an extraneous sight by hardware-software means. To trace similar transactions it is almost impossible. Internet-drugstores give out psychoactive preparations without the recipe. And, at last, the Dutch and Canadian companies through Internet trade worldwide in cannabis seeds, grassy ecstasy, and ephedrine.
Use of the powerful computer techniques connected to the international bank electronic network, promotes distribution internationally process of legalisation of criminal incomes. Even more often drug dealers «launder money» through Internet-banks.
As the international market of drugs covers all regions of the world and almost each nation, the money-laundering, received as a result of drug traffic, also has got transnational character. Only within the Russian Federation «is washed» from 2 to 7 billion dollars of money from drugs, these means then actually free move abroad. Under the statement of officials of Singapore, with 1999 on 2002 drug dealers it is spent through Singapore about 100 million dollars which went through underground bank to Bahrain and further into accounts of the World Bank. In 1996 in Singapore arrest has been put means of the organisations of drug dealers in the sum equivalent to 20 million of US dollars. The money-laundering estimation in Australia makes about 3,5 billion dollars annually. Here, for example, the network on washing up more than 20 million dollars of the receipt of heroin in New York has been opened and is confiscated more than 40 million dollars from funds of the criminal syndicate trading in cannabis in Australia, but being in Hong Kong4.
In this light there is real an estimation according to which annually in the world will be legalised the incomes received as a result of drug business, at a rate of 300-800 bln. dollars of the USA (are washed)5.
If it was possible to block the basic channels of washing up of drugs-dollars drug business to no small degree would lose the appeal. Fabulous incomes of a drug turn, estimated in billions dollars, it is impossible to store «in a stocking». However to block channels it is not possible, for there is a set of methods of washing up of drugs-dollars, and too powerful forces make profit of these operations.
The drug trafficking actively stimulates also corruption with which help drugs cartels and other criminal groups involved in process of drugs business, aspire to secure the business and to duck out. The profit part is spent for payoff and reception of the necessary information. Gathering of data on the corrupted officials in law enforcement bodies and authorities, the data about market condition, about the prices for drugs is conducted. For example, one of not the largest Mexican cartels – Tidzhuansky – spends weekly 1 million dollars for bribes to the Mexican judges, public prosecutors, police, army, and customs. The general public prosecutor of Mexico recognised that 90 % of judges and public prosecutors in Tidzhuane «are bought» by cartel.--PAGE_BREAK--
One of the major universal tendencies in drugs business development also is its industrialisation. Illegal manufacture of narcotics gets character of well adjusted industry. Depending on technological complexity of the organisation of illegal manufactures underground drugs laboratories it is possible conditionally are subdivided on handicraft which, as a rule, possess low productivity and manufacture in which is carried out without difficult chemical reactions, and industrial, different by high efficiency and used for manufacture of synthetic drugs by means of difficult chemical synthesis.
Concerning the countries widely making narcotics, strict economic sanctions are entered. However the quantity of drugs laboratories in territories is reduced very slowly.
Last years of XX centuries the tendency to concentration of manufacture of narcotics, integration of capacities on manufacture of drugs was observed. The numerous facts of detection of laboratories-giants testify to it on cocaine manufacture. So, it agree to the data published by antinarcotics’ police of Colombia, in 1996 in the Central Colombia was the underground laboratory-complex protected by a large armed formation is found out and destroyed. It had several runways, has been equipped by modern system of the notification and differed high level of the organisation of production. Annual maximum productivity of this laboratory could make approximately 350 т cocaine.
Mobility of manufacturers of drugs increases. The facts of manufacture of drugs in the mobile laboratories which are settling down in vans and by trucks are elicited. Similar laboratories seldom enough come into the view of law enforcement bodies and, continuously making drugs in a way, to destination deliver already ready product. Capacity of one of such laboratories revealed in territory of Colombia, made 70 kg of cocaine a day.
Manufacture process синтетиков has no rigid binding to raw materials sources, places of their transportation and sale. Thereof turn decentralisation synthetic is observed. Besides, the number of intermediate links in a chain «the manufacturer – the consumer» is considerably reduced that reduces a risk level and costs. Synthetic drugs are much more difficult for finding out at all stages of their illegal circulation including stages of creation, transportation and trade.
Last years there are new kinds of synthetic drugs. In their manufacture last scientific achievements are used. Considerable financial resources are invested in financing of independent researches for the purpose of search of new drugs and more perfect technologies of their manufacturing. Handicraft and unproductive manufactories are superseded by hi-tech compact laboratories and the large industrial drug enterprises which are served by the qualified experts.
The international scale of a drug trafficking and involving of the increasing quantity of the states in a world network of routes of their illegal transportation have actually destroyed division of the countries of the world existing by decades on «consuming» (the developed capitalist countries) and «making», mainly developing countries.
In the nineties the twentieth century drug business has had development even in those countries where earlier the drug trafficking and abusing were not marked earlier by them at all. Experts of the United Nations connect the reasons of development of the transnational criminal organisations including what primary activity is drugs business, with the advent of corresponding possibilities at global level that is caused by long-term tendencies of development in world politics and economy. As a result of increase in interdependence of the states, simplification of the international trips and communications, increases of degree of a transparency of national borders and formation of global financial networks have appeared the world markets of sale both lawful, and illegal production. It is possible to consider development and scope of activity of the organised drugs criminality substantially as reflexion of the possibilities which have appeared as a result of reorganisation of the international relations, and the changes which have occurred in the states. Thus, transnational drugs business can be both the reason, and a consequence of the important changes in the global policy and economy.
It is possible to carry the following to number of principal causes and factors of development of drugs business6:
— Weakness of the governments, inability of the state to carry out an effective control over territory being under their jurisdiction (for example, in Bolivia, Colombia, Peru).
— Carrying out by the state of a policy of connivance in relation to drugs business or politicians of «silent reconciliation» in connection with the income brought by it to a society, or from fear of counter-measures from outside criminals. For example, in Pakistan to the power almost did not interfere with opium manufacture, its transportation, actually indulging drugs businessmen.
— The powerful factor of development of drugs business is political and economic instability. It is connected with use of considerable financial resources from manufacture and sale of drugs for achievement of political ends. Acknowledgement to it are cases when the finance received from contraband of drugs, goes on purchase of the weapon for развязывания and maintenance of international conflicts. Interrelations of the organised crime with terrorist and extremist groupings thus extend.
— Easing and dysfunctions of social institutes, excessively high rates of social and economic and political transformations in connection with transition of the post socialist countries to market system of managing. Absence or imperfection of the legislation or the control of its execution in a combination to a sharp aggravation of social and economic problems is in these conditions the favorable environment for drugs business development. In similar cases the most active people are actively involved in drugs business with the limited financial and economic resources.
— Corruption of the governments which members get huge profit on illegal activity and consequently do not undertake any measures for its reduction or restraint. Distinction between corrupted and entered arrangement to criminals the government consists only in degree of direct participation of its members in drugs business. In a number of the countries, using the corrupted politicians, accomplices in law enforcement bodies, armies, customs, the drug mafia has achieved unlimited influence. In particular, in Bolivia in 80th so-called «drugs cratia» represented, possibly, vivid example of a direct communication of the government with the criminal organisation which was engaged in drug traffic. Experts assert that it was impossible to draw a distinction between the military Bolivian government and suppliers of drugs. At the same time the state sovereignty in which territory there are similar criminal formations, provides with it reliable protection against attempts of other countries to stop illegal activity, to liquidate the central links and branches of criminal structures.
— Increasing demand for the illegal goods. So, occurrence in the early eighties the Colombian organisations on cocaine contraband partly speaks ultrahigh norm of profitableness of drugs business, ease of overcoming of boundary barriers to import in the USA.
— Inequality preservation between industrially developed and developing states, unprofitable position in which the last are put in international trade system, interfere with their normal economic progress and realisation of the possibilities given by lawful commercial activity. The choice of illegal ways of business becomes attractive alternative to poverty. In particular, weakness and instability of the markets of agricultural production (to Bolivias, Peru and a number of other countries) were made культивирование by cooks and opium rather favourable employment for local peasants. Liberalisation of the foreign trade activity.
— The economic crises stimulating search of improvement of a financial position by participation in illegal business. Businessmen use there the saved up knowledge and experience of traditional manufactures. In the conditions of crisis participation in drugs business allows to soften temporarily a problem of employment of a considerable part of the population. In these conditions activity of illegal formations starts to be perceived positively. For example, occurrence of the Colombian cartel as one of the main cocaine centers is caused by reduction of its role as large manufacturer of the textile goods. Drug dealers have provided alternative employment of a labour, having won thereby liking of local population. Similar loyalty has essential value as complicates work of services of counterespionage for criminals and counteracts productivity of operations of law enforcement bodies.
Besides, researchers name the following events which have caused changes in the organisation and activity of the industry of manufacture of drugs, and also manufacture rapid growth last two decades of the XX-th century:
— The sharp increase in demand at cocaine in the USA in 80th years, it has led to activization of efforts of the Colombian manufacturers of the drugs directed on eliminating the basic competitors, to expand capacities on raw materials processing, to improve routes of delivery of drugs and to neutralise measures of the Colombian authorities on execution of the laws, concerning illegal drugs business;
— Intrusion of the Soviet armies into Afghanistan into 1979 and the long conflict which has followed it promoting growth of manufacture of opium which in turn, provided a source of means for conducting war against the USSR. There is a version about working out of CIA of the special program code-named «White jihad» during the Soviet-Afghani conflict which essence consisted in use of Afghanistan as base for manufacturing of opium-raw and its transfer in republics USSR. Besides, the military conflict has allowed drug dealers, having got of support of Mojaheds of Iran and Pakistan, to use these countries as transit routes;
— Islamic revolution in Iran when the help of the Iranian government to fundamentalists in Doline Bekaa has undermined antidrug operations in Lebanon and in region as a whole and has allowed Iran to become the important element in system of distribution of heroin;
— Realisation of rigid antidrug measures in Colombia and Mexico has in the mid-eighties led to changes in geography of manufacture and sale of drugs, manufacture has extended to Brazil, Venezuela, Ecuador, Surinam, Haiti and Paraguay became the important reloading points;
— Crash in 1988 of a mode Ne Fault in Myanma (Burma). Myanma already was for a long time the large manufacturer of opium, but the government Not Fault periodically carried out retaliatory operations against manufacturers and dealers opium. In the conditions of the political instability which has arisen after falling of the government Not Fault, intensity of struggle against drugs business grew weak, and as a result to the beginning of 90th years Myanma has turned to the world's largest manufacturer of opium; — A combination of intensive measures in Colombia, followed after murder of the candidate in Carlos Galany's presidents in August, 1989, and intervention of the USA to Panama in December, 1989 have led to certain shifts in the drugs industry of Latin America: Panama has ceased to exist as the large centre of drug-dealing, cocaine manufacture in Colombia was reduced and its manufacture in Peru has increased, operations with drugs in Argentina, Chile and other countries of the South America have extended; there was a relative easing of Medical Elinsky drugs cartel and strengthening of its competitor – cartel of Cali;
— Obvious saturation of the market of cocaine in the USA in the early nineties, a consequence of that became aspiration of drugs businessmen to a diversification of „product“ and the markets. Latin American drug pusher began to be engaged in development and expansion of the markets in Europe, Japan and on Middle East. Cartel of Cali, for example, the beginnings рекрутировать couriers in Poland for an illicit crossing of cocaine through the Polsko-German border; law enforcement bodies of Czechia and Poland have found out the underground network of the organisations covering Poland, Czechia and the Netherlands, the Czech-Colombian company on import of agrarian production was the centre of this network;
— Incessant experiments on creation of new psychotropic substances, such as „snow“. These drugs can be made in any place in the presence of corresponding chemical substances;
— Drug traffic internationalisation. So, some countries are not manufacturers of drugs and do not face sharply problems of abusing them, but appear deeply involved in process of drug-dealing owing to the geographical position. For example, Uzbekistan and Azerbaijan have got great value in drug-dealing in Central Asia, Gyana and Trinidad and Tobago became the important reloading points at movement of drugs from Colombia in the USA, and Nigeria – for a stream of heroin from Southeast and Southwest Asia.
Prompt growth and the international expansion of the drugs business, entangling the networks all new and new countries, were the major, but not defining factor of evolution of a drugs situation in the modern world. The increasing value gets active counteraction to this harm at the international and national level which is carried out on the basis of numerous programs, such, as the United Nations Program under the international control over drugs, the European plan of action on struggle against drugs (1995 – 1999), the sub regional Program under the control over drugs in South East Asia, the Interamerican drugs strategy, anti-drug and a policy the certifications spent by the USA and many other things. An important role softening with the period termination «cold war» political contradictions has played, and cooperation of the states in sphere of struggle against drugs business became practically more realizable action. For example, still impracticable cooperation programs in which would participate simultaneously Egypt, Israel, Jordan and Palestinian autonomy (meanwhile such program is entered in February, 1999) or cooperation of India and Pakistan in questions of struggle against a drug trafficking (this cooperation under the aegis of Management on struggle against drugs and preventive maintenance of criminality of the United Nations has begun in the late nineties) recently seemed.продолжение
In 1998 General Assembly of the United Nations special session on problems of drugs on which there were objects in view – twice to reduce consumption of drugs has been spent and it is essential to reduce their illegal manufacture by 2008. At that time these purposes could seem unattainable, but experience of last two years testifies that search of ways of an effective control over drugs business all the same yields positive results7.
The report on position with drugs in the world for 2000 – work of Management of the United Nations based in Vienna on struggle against drugs and criminality preventive maintenance – marks the most essential progress in the tendency to curtailment of production of two main problem narcotic substances in the world — cocaine and heroin.
As the report affirms that thanks to the serious approach from outside the majority of the countries which are the basic manufacturers’ cooks and опийного of a poppy, these plants are cultivated now in smaller, than ever, number of the countries. Pino Alarchi, chief executive УБНПП, has mentioned the following facts speaking about positive changes, occurred at the front struggle against drugs business8:
• In 2000 in Pakistan manufacture opium a poppy has actually stopped, besides, after performance of the fifteen-year program all production is destroyed.
• In Bolivia for three years according to «the Basic plan», installed in 1997, the areas were reduced to 78 % illegal cultivation cooks.
• Manufacture cooks in the Peru which has sharply increased in 1980th years, since 1992 as promptly decreases with 50 percent reduction of deliveries of cocaine on the world market.
• For 18 months which have followed the agreement, reached between UBNPP and the President of Laos, cultivation opium in Laos which is one of three basic world manufacturers, it has been reduced to 30 %.
• In 1990th years cultivation opium a poppy in Vietnam it was reduced to 90 %.
• Manufacture opium a poppy in Thailand has decreased under a rigid management of the king of the country supported by local social institutes and the international community, in particular, by the Program of the United Nations under the international control over drugs and Management on struggle against drugs and preventive maintenance of criminality
• the Areas occupied with crops opium of a poppy have reached the lowest level since 1988, i.e. in 2009 crops опийного a poppy occupied the areas, on 17 % smaller, than in 2000. The areas on which it is cultivated the cook, too have reached the lowest level since 1987, and in 2009 cooks occupied crops on 14 % of less areas under crops, than in 2000.
• the share of illegal drugs manufacture in economy of the basic countries-manufacturers of drugs Has decreased. Even in those countries where the level of production of narcotic substances all the same has high indicators, the share of manufacture of drugs in gross national product falls – in Colombia it has fallen to 2,5 % after has risen on 7 % from the middle of 1980th years.
• By the end of last decade consumption of drugs in the developed countries was stabilised or has decreased; in comparison with the last decade cocaine consumption in the North America has fallen, abusing heroin in the Western Europe was stabilised.
«Has come to change time our sight at drugs, — the chief executive of UBNPP Pino Arlachi speaks. — the World community should refuse the psychology of the despair which has captured minds of generation, and to believe that nothing can return us back and the more so will force us to stop nothing on the reached. We should concentrate on the pragmatically, integrated, long-term approach to reduction in demand and offers concerning illegal drugs. Joint efforts we can really reach within eight years of two purposes – essential reduction of demand for drugs and destructions of manufacture cooks and opium a poppy»9.
Thus, despite all extending expansion of drugs business, long-term experience of many countries of the world on search of ways of an effective control over it already now allows to see positive results. And, probably, in the long term the international community can fix the first successes in struggle against a drug trafficking and deepen the positive tendencies traced on a boundary of centuries.
The drugs business characteristic: criminal groups, kinds of drugs, stages of manufacture and distribution, sale territory
Illegal activity on manufacture and spread of drug addiction is now one of the most widespread sources of incomes of the transnational criminal organisations. And the drugs business industry has defined substantially dynamics and the general prospects of development of the transnational organised crime in the end of the XX-th century.
The virtual (actual) corporation which is so persistently propagandised by theorists of management as leading competitive enterprise structure of XXI century, has already found the real embodiment: 1) drugs businessmen develop the general network structure of the independent companies; 2) they communicate, professional skills, price control methods; 3) open access on the markets each other; 4) unite the potentials in attempts of creation and use of the new markets in various regions of the world.
Among experts there are disputes on drugs cartels concern what type of the organisation. Experts of Management in struggle against drugs of the USA define cartel as «the big corporation having a number of vice-presidents». Each of them heads any branch or «the consortium» which members work together when it is them arranges. When necessity disappears, they operate at own risk. The American magazine «Time» considers cartel «confederation of criminal families», and the Colombian magazine «Semana» characterises it as «federation of numerous independent groups which conclude from time to time the strategic unions». Experts of an English weekly journal «Economist» reject these definitions, declaring that the term «cartel» simplifies organizational structure of the corporations which are engaged in the drugs traffic that quite often conducts to errors in struggle against them. The Chilean experts giving a great attention to the given problem underline transnational character of drugs business: «the Drugs traffic is not one more kind of illegal activity, which great variety. This huge and difficult transnational enterprise which generated the new phenomenon in the modern world, namely so-called drugs economy»10.
Many analysts consider that the international narcooperations left far for frameworks of purely «economic activities». One of researchers of this problem, James Millz, characterises drugs business as follows:« The international industry of drugs is actually at all and not the industry, it is empire. Sovereign, self-satisfied and haughty it is underground empire though and often torn apart by internal struggle, always addressed to the world community the rallied front. Today it showed herself to the world so immensely money-grubbing and ruthlessly exploiter, as well as any imperial state of a XIX-th century, so extensive, as well as British Empire, so capable to resolute rallying, as well as the American republic. Aggressive and violent by the nature the underground empire has own armies, diplomats and reconnaissance services, banks, merchant marine fleets and airlines. She aspires to expansion of the domination by all ways – from illegal subversive activities before open war ».
At all variety of cartels in them the fear cast-iron discipline, because punishment one – death reigns. Survivability of the transnational criminal organisations also is to no small degree connected by that, performing the operations, they completely ignore borders of the states, the national sovereignty while the international and national forces combating them, are obliged to operate by the strict rules established by these attributes of statehood.
The transnational organisations which are engaged in drugs business, have certain commodity markets not only in the territorial relation, but also are frequent by «production» kinds (heroin, cocaine, marihuana, etc.) Besides, they can be substantially differentiated functionally, on production phases and spreads of drug addiction.
Parts of transnational organisations are focused on multistage process: from manufacture before realisation of any one drug (for example, heroin). The control over all chain in the drugs business industry: from cultivation drug contents plants and manufacture of natural or synthetic drugs before their sale and gain legalisation – allows such organisations to weaken actions of law enforcement bodies on drug trafficking suppression and repeatedly to raise profit on a difference of the prices between wholesale and retail. A vivid example such ТПО are the Colombian drugs cartels which, as a matter of fact, represent industrial concerns on manufacture of cocaine from raw materials growing in the South America. They supervise export of the made cocaine on the markets of the USA, Canada and Europe.
Others transnational organisations prefer to carry out activity only at separate stages of a drug trafficking. So, for example, the Nigerian criminal organisations are engaged basically in transportation and distribution of different kinds of drugs. Nigeria continues to remain the basic link in drug-dealing structure on the African continent, and also the main reloading point through which drug traffic between the countries East and the Western world is carried out. The Mexican cartels, without being engaged in manufacture of drugs, carry out only their transportation and distribution. The Turkish organisations are known for processing of heroin and its delivery in countries of Western Europe.
Thus, drugs business is multidimensional, its characteristic should be carried out on several parametres: to kinds of drugs, stages of their manufacture and distribution, manufacture and sale territories, the basic routes and ways of delivery, change of tendencies of these parametres for the last years.
The characteristic of the markets of principal views of drugs
According to the experts, today in the world it is made from 1 to 1,5 thousand t chlorohydrin cocaine. The basic consumers of a drug — the USA, Europe, Japan, Hong Kong. In the United States which is the heavy user of cocaine in the world, according to the Interpol, is late more than 70 % of illegal deliveries of a drug. The basic directions of cocaine contraband — the American-Mexican border and Florida. A parity «volume — the price» does cocaine by one of the most favourable in drugs business. It became one of the reasons of the greatest level of integration and rigid structurization of a cocaine drug mafia (cartels) in comparison with suppliers of other kinds of drugs11.
In 2009 the volume of withdrawals of cocaine has made nearby 495 t that on 33 % more than in 2008. The cocaine most part is still withdrawn on the American continent, mainly in the countries adjoining on the states — manufacturers of cocaine: Chile, Ecuador, the countries of Central America, Venezuela and Paraguay. In 2009 55 % of all cases of withdrawal of cocaine it was necessary to the South America (including Central America and Caribbean basin), 28 % — to the North America and 17 % — to Europe. Steady growth of volume of withdrawals of cocaine in Europe that reflects the basic changes in structure of a turn of cocaine became the most amazing tendency of last years12.
Cocaine transportation is usually carried out by traditional means: with use of the drugs couriers transporting cargo on commercial airlines. The Nigerian groupings participating in a transfer of cocaine in the countries of Europe, Asia and Africa, since 1991, began to involve in the activity of citizens of other states, such as the USA. Similar practice of use as drugs couriers not citizens of Nigeria, and also attraction of persons from the countries consuming drugs, proceeds already more than 10 years.
Larger parties hide in container cargoes which send to Europe and the USA sea transport. Usually the commercial vessels transporting lawful cargoes are for this purpose used, which sheer in the high sea in a direction of the countries of Caribbean basin to take away cargo of cocaine which then is delivered in the largest seaports or is forwarded through sea coastal lines.
In total for 2009 it has been made opiat on 747 million dollars, and 80 % — in Afghanistan (about 600 million dollars). At global level cultivation опийного a poppy has increased on 16 %, basically at the expense of increase in crops in Afghanistan. In South East Asia since 1998 the tendency to decrease культивирования proceeds.
In 2009 more than 67 % of universal crops were in Afghanistan. The area of the cultivated fields here has increased from 80 thousand in hectare in 2008 to 131 thousand in hectare in 2009. Now illegal crops are in all 34 provinces of the country. Withdrawal опиатов (heroin, морфина and the opium, expressed in a heroin equivalent) at global level has increased in 2008 by 33 % in comparison with level of 2007. This increase became a consequence of doubling of volumes confiscated морфина that has reflected renewal of large-scale cultivation and processing опийного a poppy in Afghanistan in 2007. Heroin withdrawal has increased by 10 % (53,3), opium — on 38 % (134) and morphinin 77 % (43,7) from total amount confiscated opiat13.продолжение
The volume of withdrawals in the Western Europe has decreased on 13 % and has made 19,4t. It has been most of all confiscated in Great Britain and Italy — the largest European markets опиатов. In spite of the fact that the price for heroin here continues to fall (69 euros for gramme in 2006, 63 euros in 2007 and 60 euros in 2008), the markets of the Western and Central Europe remain the most profitable places of sale of this drug.
As to abusing heroin, position in countries of Western Europe either remains stable, or (consumption) decrease was marked. The largest market of heroin in Europe is, most likely, Russia: total number of the persons who are on drugs, makes, by estimations, from 3 to 4 million, 1/3 from which — the persons abusing heroin.
Abusing opium continues to increase in China. In 2008-2009 the number of the registered addicts increased and has exceeded 1 million persons that make 15-fold increase during 2005-2007. The message on the most considerable decrease in level of abusing опиатами has during the last years arrived in 2004 from Oceania. This tendency remained throughout 2005 and 2006.
Marihuana, hashish are made of cannabis, hashish oil. Unlike cooks and opium poppy, the hemp is cultivated practically worldwide that is caused by its wide prevalence and unpretentiousness. Cannabis, being enough soft drug, always was popular at consumers.
The basic manufacturers of marihuana are: in Africa — Nigeria, Malawi, Lesotho and Swaziland; in America — Mexico, Canada, Jamaica and Colombia; in the Central Asia — Kazakhstan and Kirghizia; in the Near East — Egypt and Lebanon; in Southern Asia — India; in South East Asia — Cambodia, Thailand and Philippines14.
The North America, most likely, — the largest manufacturer of marihuana in the world, however this market is isolated: the most part of the made is consumed on a place. According to administrative bodies of the USA, 2/3 local demands for marihuana are satisfied at the expense of manufacture in the country, 56 % of imported marihuana arrive from Mexico, 20 % — from Canada.
Management researches on struggle against drugs and criminality preventive maintenance have shown that about 1/3 universal manufactures of marihuana it is necessary to the North America that makes 14 thousand т. On the second place on volume of made marihuana Africa of-12 thousand т (28 % of total amount). Less large, but important manufacturers — Southern Asia (9 %) and the Central Asia (5 %).
Morocco — the largest manufacturer of hashish supplying the West European market. Researches of 2004 have shown that in comparison with level of 2006 decrease культивирования cannabis on 10 % is observed, under cannabis crops has been occupied 120,5 thousand in hectare, whereas in 2003-134 thousand in hectare. From the collected crop in 2007 it has been made nearby 2760 т hashish. Despite the given small decrease, the tendency to growth as in manufacture, and the withdrawal volume, begun still in the early nineties the last century, proceeds.
The drugs having the widest turn all over the world, still there are two products of cannabis: marihuana and pitch of cannabis (hashish). The cannabis turn mentions almost all countries of the world. In the majority of the countries the volume of withdrawals of cannabis surpasses volume of withdrawals of other kinds of drugs. The volume of the withdrawn products of cannabis in 2007 on 24 % more than in 2006 also is the greatest since 1984. It exceeds volume of withdrawals of 90th years more than twice, and also level of 1999 — on 46 %. The universal volume of withdrawals of hashish has made in 2009 1361 т that on 25 % there is more than 2008. The volume of withdrawals basically has increased in the north of Africa (63 %), in the Near East (21 %) and in Europe (26 %)15.
As already it was told above, cannabis remains to one of the most widespread drugs in the world: only in 2003 it consumed more than 161 million persons that make 4 % from an aggregate number of aged people of 15-64 years in the world. It is necessary to notice that from cannabis products marihuana uses the greatest popularity. Cannabis uses the greatest demand in Oceania, the North America and Africa. Cannabis consumption continues to grow in the world: 46 % from an order of 100 interrogated countries have declared growth of consumption and only 16 % — about its decrease. In particular it has mentioned the countries of Latin America, Caribbean basin and Central America, Western and the Eastern Europe and some countries of Asia.
Some groups of the preparations having a various spectrum of action concern synthetic drugs — from stimulators to барбитуратов, being, as a matter of fact, somnolent preparations. A variety of drugs of chemical substances used for manufacture, interchangeability of initial components provide availability and rather low production costs синтетиков. As initial components their uncontrollable analogues that reduce a risk level can be used. Consumption of synthetic drugs — such as «ecstasy» and amphetamine — steadily grows all over the world, partly because people do not realise degree of their danger.
By estimations, in 2008 the universal volume of output methamphetamine and amphetamine has made nearby 422 t, and a volume of output " ecstasy " — 90 t (basically MDMA). Thus, an annual volume of output of stimulators amphetamine a number (САР) above corresponding indicators on heroin, but more low — on cocaine. The basic manufacturers methamphetamine are East and South East Asia (including Myanma, China and Philippines) and the North America (the USA and Mexico). The basic manufacturers amphetamine and " ecstasy " are in Europe (78 %). The Netherlands (the largest manufacturer), Belgium, Poland concern their number, the states of Baltic and Germany16.
In manufacture САР which universal volume has grown for last decade, the basic place occupies methamphetamine, and then follow «ecstasy» and amphetamine. In 2008 11253 underground laboratories have been liquidated. More than 80 % from them made methamphetamine. In the early nineties this share did not exceed 20 %. The tendency to decrease in 2007-2008 was replaced by growth of volume of withdrawals amphetamine with 13 %. Large withdrawals have been made in Thailand (20 %), China (18 %), the USA (14 %), Philippines (10 %), Great Britain, the Netherlands and Australia (on 6 %).
In Asia the consumption problem amphetamine costs on the second place after consumption опиатов: all 2/3 of consumers’ amphetamine and methamphetamine live here. In some countries preparations amphetamine groups became more popular some heroin. In 2008 amphetamine and methamphetamine used about 26 million persons that makes 0,6 % from world number of persons at the age from 15 till 64 years. Whereas «ecstasy» – 7,9 million persons.
Consumption «ecstasy» now basically is concentrated in Europe and the North America. The western and the Central Europe is the consumer of 1/3 world volumes «ecstasy». Hardly more low a consumption level in the North American countries — 30 %. All last decade universal consumption «ecstasy» steadily grew and, most likely, will continue the growth the next years though and not so it is prompt as, for example, in the late nineties. Invariable popularity and, as consequence, use distribution «ecstasy» in many developing countries remain. The turn of this branch of the drugs industry is estimated in 65 billion dollars a year17.
Capacities of the laboratories intended for manufacture of heroin, allow making in parallel amphetamine. In the Western Europe, especially in the Netherlands and Great Britain, small laboratories of the big capacity are extended. Manufacture of stimulators in the states of Baltic, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Mexico, Poland and the USA has extended.
As a whole synthetic drugs occupy a leading position among other groups of narcotic and strong substances. They do not demand long cultivation and the possible losses connected with it (for example, as a result of a drought, destruction of plantations, etc.); the minimum volume of substance (the dose can make a milligramme share) promotes more safe transportation, and the wide range of consumers provides high incomes. Besides, scientific and technical progress allows to synthesise drugs of new generation, cheaper and stronger.
Despite positive tendencies of decrease in manufacture of drugs in some countries, noted in the report of the United Nations on position with drugs in the world for 2004, drugs business continues to remain a highly remunerative kind of transnational, criminal activity. Manufacture of drugs of new generation allows to reduce the prices and to involve in an illegal drugs turn the increasing quantity of people. The structure of the transnational organisations which are engaged in drugs business, helps to duck out easily, endowing only local links of retail trade and couriers. The transnationality of character of activity does not allow jurisdictions of the separate countries to struggle effectively with drugs business. Thus drugs business actively stimulates other kinds of transnational criminal activity.
Interrelation of drugs business with other global problems of mankind
The problem of illegal manufacture of drugs very closely intertwines with other global problems of mankind. This distribution of AIDS, financing of activity of terrorists, organised crime development as a whole.
One more problem closely connected with a drug trafficking and having global character – polarisation of the states, the increasing deepening of an industrial inequality. In a context of a problem a camp of «the third world» attempt to consider an illegal drugs turn in the Report of the United Nations on position with drugs in the world for 2000 is made. According to experts of the United Nations, that geographically manufactures of drugs more and more concentrates in territory of such states – not simply coincidence. To approach to it is necessary not from that position that the states of „the third world» intentionally are engaged in drugs manufacture – are not present, illegal manufacture of drugs – only a symptom of deep problems of these countries, and a drugs problem – one of the most stubborn18.
It concerns those states, whose institutes are so weak that cannot organise effective internal regulation and external safety, to the states incapable or doing not wish to provide protection to all levels of population. Besides, now the globe is shaken with 250 political conflicts of various intensity, nearby 30 from them have interstate character. Weakness of the states gives favorable possibilities for the organised criminal groups. The criminality, corruption of the state institutes, and, as consequence, laws grows cease to play a role. After only the organised crime starts to feel the force and to be convinced of it, about the lawful and effectively functioning state cannot be and speeches. The similar criminalised state formations are least interested in observance of human rights. If to the state there was something similar, restoration of normal conditions – the long, difficult and expensive process directed not only on construction of the state institutes, but also on elimination of contradictions among the country population, mutual distrust eradication.
All aforesaid causes involving of the population of the states of “the third world» in process of illegal manufacture of drugs. From this point of view, cultivation an opium poppy for the peasant in Afghanistan – search of ways of a survival in severe world around in the conditions of the long internal state conflict, stable conditions and daily threat for a life. In other cases manufacturers of drugs pay original „tax“ from the profit, going on needs of insurgent groups, such as Revolutionary armed forces of Colombia. In both cases manufacture of drugs is the tool for achievement of wider purposes. The cook or opium poppy plays here only a role of the goods which can be sold well.
Undoubtedly, the decision of a problem of illegal manufacture of drugs should be accompanied by a number of other measures directed to the aid of the states of „the third world» in overcoming of difficult internal conditions. The international community measures to poverty prevention, to population safety, and if circumstances develop favorably, to construction in these countries of normally functioning state institutes should be taken.
And in a context of a problem of the states of “the third world» it is necessary to consider threat which especially sharply faces recently to mankind – interaction between drugs businessmen and terrorists. Both the terrorism and a drug trafficking threaten a life of millions people, stability of the state institutes, national safety.
So, the co-ordinator of US State department on struggle against terrorism Michael Shihan has declared at subcommittee session on criminality of Legal committee of the House of Representatives: «Drug dealers and manufacturers of drugs, as well as the international criminals… Search for such corners on globe where they could operate with impunity without the control from outside the authorities. It is no wonder that often takes place a bow between those who is engaged in terrorism, and those who participates in other international forbidden kinds of activity»19.
In connection with the tendency of steady reduction of financial „injections“ from outside the traditional states-sponsors of terrorism terrorists even more often resort to other sources of financing, such as manufacture and sale of drugs. And last decade was marked by the further consolidation and development of mutually advantageous cooperation between terrorist groups and suppliers of drugs, and also more and more wide participation of terrorist groups in transportations of drugs with a view of financing of the operations.продолжение
Both terrorists and drugs businessmen bring «mite» in these mutual relations. The terrorists possessing experience of semi military operations, supply drugs businessmen with the weapon; suppliers of drugs are used as «the milk cows», providing to terrorists access to the financial sources essentially surpassing their usual channels of reception of money. Drugs businessmen also possess experience of illegal sending and money-laundering. Thus, drugs business and terrorism in escalating degree operate in common.
Almost all largest groups of insurgents-terrorists rely on delivery of drugs carried out in this or that form as on a method of reception of necessary means. In addition to it, drug traffic is connected with illegal delivery of the weapon and other forms of contraband. The list of the organisations such, undoubtedly, is headed by Revolutionary armed forces of Colombia (РВСК) and the National liberation army (НОА), become, apparently, the sample for imitation, and other terrorist groups including groups of Islamite having religious motivation, follow today their example. So, the talib mode in Afghanistan allowed to operate in the territory Ben Laden and to other terrorists, encouraged drug traffic and got from it profit. Some Islamic extremists consider drugs business as the weapon against the West and one of sources of incomes for financing of the activity.
Other groups, wishing to use «drugs-dollars», «Sendero Luminoso» («the Light way») in Peru, the Kurdish workers' party (РКК) to Turkey, «Hezbollah» in Lebanon, «Tigers of clearing of Tamila» in republic Sri Lanka, the Irish republican army (ИРА) in Great Britain, Incorporated army of the state Va in Burma, various extremist both terrorist groups and terrorists-singles in the USA are.
Drug traffic provides receipt from the USA and Europe huge riches in some regions of Latin America, Asia and Middle East. In effect, drugs give the chance to subsidise activity of terrorist groups worldwide.
The problem of consumption of drugs gets global and more and more menacing character. Drugs business to some extent can be compared to the international terrorism, and unique distinction between them consists only that terrorists destroy people in arms, and drugs businessmen kill and will cripple human lives, using narcotics.
Growth of manufacture and spread of drug addiction in the world speaks following reasons:
•In the conditions of political and economic integration, development of international trade, increase of a transparency of internal borders by more free there is a movement of the goods, financial streams, the capital, population shift. These factors are actively used by criminal structures for working out of new routes and perfection of methods of a transfer of drugs;
•Development of a science and occurrence of a new information technology expand possibilities of criminal groupings for application of modern techniques, including computers and шифраторы, mobile phones and other communication facility that substantially raises security of criminal structures and reduces percent of disclosing of the crimes connected with manufacture, a transfer and spread of drug addiction;
•Increasing distinction between «the rich north» and «the poor south» is actively maintained by drugs business for expansion of manufacture of drugs on the African continent, in region Central and the South America, in the countries of South East Asia.
The wide circulation has received the use of drugs among youth. As a whole such tendency is shown: middle age of the persons, for the first time tried drugs, decreases, and total number of new consumers of narcotics increases.
The youth basically consumes hashish, however even more often in a combination to other excitants. The increasing popularity is got so-called by «club drugs» («club drugs») type ketamine, and also psychotropic substances of type MDMA («ecstasy»). Advantage of these narcotics consists that they are cheaper in comparison with the same heroin or cocaine and they can be used in various variations.
Efforts of a drug mafia had been created the steady drugs traffic penetrating almost all territory of the country. For advancement of drugs to consumers’ underground retail networks which actively used not only street, but also schools, clubs, discos have been organised, forming the large-scale market of consumption of narcotics.
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